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影视展播--纪录片内容提要

  一、《回声》

  《回声》记录了中国HIV感染者、艾滋病病人及HIV高危行为人群的生活经历,了解他们的人生态度以及污名化如何影响他们生活的情况,并表达他们遭受社会污名与歧视的回应与心声。本片运用影视的和应用人类学的理论与方法,在对HIV感染者、性工作者、男男性行为者和一般人群先期调研的基础上进行拍摄。本片从社会文化的视角比较了中美引发HIV污名与歧视的不同原因,并在解释和分析中国社会本土特点的同时,给予改善和消除歧视的具体行动的应用性建议。

  本片片长30分钟,旨在为参与艾滋病防治工作的中国研究者、医务人员、伦理道德委员会成员与一般受众,及那些希望在中国从事艾滋病研究及培训活动的国际研究者提供参考。

  Voices of HIV in China---Anthropological Reflection on Stigma and HIV in China

  Abstract

  "Voices of HIV in China" intends to record the experiences of people in China living with HIV and high risk behaviors, their attitudes and how stigma affects their lives, in order to give voice to people experiencing the stigma of this condition. The film utilizes the theories and methods of Visual and Applied Anthropology, and is based on investigation of the target groups (PLWHA, CSW, MSM) and the general population. The film represents the factors that breed stigma and discrimination in Chinese society, in contrast with America, from the perspective of social-cultural construction. After describing and analyzing these indigenous characteristics, it offers suggestions for eliminating stigma and discrimination.

  The film is 30 minutes long, and organized by three major sections: First, it shows the lives of people in the stigmatized groups (plasma donors, orphans, sex workers, MSMs). Next, through interviews with the general population (average working persons, medical experts, provincial officials, social scientists, journalists, minorities, middle school students, etc.), it demonstrates the social-cultural reasons-beyond the biological-that produce stigma. Third, it offers suggestions regarding ways to solve the stigma problem and ends on a note of hope for the future of people at risk of or living with HIV.

  The goal of "Voices of HIV in China" is to provide a training tool for all researchers, physicians, IRB members and other audiences in China who are involved in HIV activities, as well as international researchers wishing to carry out HIV research and training activities in China.

  二、《新疆街怀想》

  当我们耳闻北京魏公村新疆街将要被拆除的消息以后,我们开始了对这一地区古今关联性的一项历史人类学调研计划。几年以后,我们的跨学科小组完成了一部专著、田野调查记、论文和这部《新疆街怀想》的影视人类学片。《新疆街怀想》选择拍摄新疆街上的维吾尔族、东乡族、藏族和毛家菜四家餐馆的信仰与生活场景,引出其历史脉络,展示其族群与信仰认同的诸多方面,以及政治象征主义在今日市场经济中的新表现形态,其中不乏食品人类学的细致刻划与诠释。

  三、《我妻我女》

  八年前笔者的一项教育人类学研究计划,侧重于中国汉人社会的儿童家庭教育的主题,开始拍摄影视人类学系列片,《我妻我女》即为其中之一。影片选择一位摄影师的妻女关系为主线,展示该家庭教育独生女的思想与行为方式。在拍摄中,难得地披露了这一家庭日常生活中鲜为人知(实际上这类家庭又是随处可见的)的各类场景,成为我们分析今日中国儿童教育过程的重要基础材料。我们衷心感谢这一家庭的所有成员,正是他们的无私的善意才使我们的学术界同仁得以身临其境地理解发生在我们身边的家庭生活,以及他们在文化濡化、社会变迁和个人选择之间的微妙联系。然而,这正是我们要探索的。

  四、《虎日》提要:

  “虎日”戒毒盟誓仪式的考察与研究运用了人类学的人类研究的整体论原则,在寻找地方族群毒品依赖行为的社会文化原因的同时,考虑建立不同于科学的方法论的另一种方法论-即以文化的力量战胜人类生物性的成瘾性。彝族人民运用强大的习惯法与仪式、家支组织、信仰与尊严、民俗道德、亲情教化等集合的文化的力量,实现了世界上最高的戒毒成功率(64%-87%)目前正在进一步推广。影视人类学片《虎日》一改传统纪录片单纯描述与诠释的特点,卷入了探索影片的直接应用目的并付诸实施,从而为影视人类学开辟了的新的方向。

  Abstract

  The "Tiger Day" model, using anthropological theory as a tool, seeks to understand the socio-cultural origins of drug abuse and trafficking. At the same time, the model attempts to reactivate an ancient lineage rite to fight the abuse of drugs among the Yi people of Liangshan. By mobilizing and activating the lineage organization, religious rites, traditional moral principles, tribal laws, traditional education and other important elements in the cultural heritage of the Yi people, the willpower to overcome human biological addiction is stimulated and fortified. This improves the rate of successful rehabilitation among local drug abusers, and facilitates the fight against HIV/AIDS. Through the documentary Tiger Day, produced by the Institute for Anthropology of Renmin University of China, the "Tiger Day" model has been disseminated among the Yi people, and has already exerted a positive impact. Many lineage chieftains are taking the model seriously, and have begun to practice it. Local government officials also have recognized the importance of this approach. This awareness among people lays a preliminary foundation for the implementation of drug control and drug abuse rehabilitation throughout the county.



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