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The Experts The Ebola Response May Need: Anthropologists

2014-09-30

The Experts The Ebola Response May Need: Anthropologists

按语:随着埃博拉的爆发和传播,许多专家来到疫区,有无国界医生、WHO的工作人员等,但是埃克塞特(University of Exeter)大学的Ann Kelly认为还缺少一支专家队伍——人类学家。

作者认为:消毒的房舍、亲人被送入医疗机构等对于当地人而言是一个完全陌生的场景,因此,疾病传播与地方文化背景、当地人与健康工作者之间出现了鸿沟,而人类学家能够为之架起桥梁。

任何传染都是高度社会性的,是一个非常亲密的过程,而人类学正是一门关于亲密和亲密关系的学问,人类学家因而能为应对埃博拉做出独特的贡献。作者还提及人类学家为葬礼提供的洞见,认为允许当地人在保证生物安全的情况下瞻仰亲人遗体,通过仪式表达哀悼之情,将能消除当地人的不信任和疑虑。而面对亲人、医护人员在医疗机构内的死亡,人们恐惧被送入医疗场所的反应是合情合理的,仅仅意识到这一点就能为改善二者之间的关系提供很大的帮助。[方静文]

by NPR Staff

September 28, 2014

As the Ebola outbreak gains steam, experts continue to deploy to the region.

Teams from Doctors Without Borders, the World Health Organization, the U.S. military and others are in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia assembling treatment centers and fighting the deadly virus.

A sign in Abidjan, Ivory Coast's capital, warns residents that "the Ebola threat is real."
Goats and Soda
Denying Ebola Turns Out To Be A Very Human Response
There's one group of experts missing from the picture, says Ann Kelly, senior lecturer at the University of Exeter: anthropologists.

A World Health Organization worker trains nurses how to use Ebola protective gear in Freetown, Sierra Leone.
Goats and Soda
Dire Predictions On Ebola's Spread From Top Health Organizations
Anthropologists understand local traditions and can explain to health care workers how commerce and social functions could facilitate transmission of the virus, Kelly tells NPR's Linda Wertheimer. They can also give insight into residents' fears of those workers.

To protect its cocoa workers from Ebola, the Ivory Coast has closed its borders.
Goats and Soda
Ebola's Toll: Farmers Aren't Farming, Traders Aren't Trading
Kelly wrote about the role anthropologists' should play in resolving the crisis for the website Somatosphere.

"To contain this epidemic we must come to grips with dynamics of fear and obligations of care in a context where everyone is afraid," Kelly co-wrote with colleagues Almudena Marí Sáez and Hannah Brown. "It is an anthropological truism, but this means seeing populations not as a stumbling block to halting the spread but as our only resource."

"These people have lived with and around animals for generations, but have never seen this kind of disease," she writes. Thus, "the epidemic becomes linked instead to practices never before seen or out of context: disinfecting houses, erecting barriers, taking relatives to the hospital, from where they do not return."

"Disease becomes then a logical extension of the efforts of government officials and foreigners," she writes. Anthropologists could bridge that gap.

---------------------------------------------------------

Interview Highlights

On anthropologists' unique contribution

Any situations of infectious contagion are highly social. It's an incredibly intimate process, and anthropology is a science of intimacy, of intimate connections. With Ebola, the points of transmission are through touch. An anthropologist does a lot of work with how people interact with each other in an everyday way.

On the importance of funerals

Now the anthropologists in the region ... have contributed quite a lot of insight in terms of funerals. These funerals are key moments, and there are key features that go into making an appropriate funeral. Whether it's seeing the body, making sure that the body is whole ... There's a number of rumors that these bodies are being defiled in some way, that there's organ theft, and I think allowing people just to see the body of their loved one, allowing people to have expressions of mourning, to dance, to perform the kind of rituals that they would do within the boundaries of biosafety [would resolve local mistrust and concern].

On negative reactions to health care workers

I think people know that health care workers are dying and sick, so the prospect of being taken into a health facility is probably quite scary. So I think even just understanding that these are not crazy responses that people need to be educated from, but these are actually quite reasoned responses, can go a long way toward building those bridges between the very important work of health care and these local populations that are quite terrified and trying the best they can to be healthy, to be well, to saved their loved ones.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2014/09/28/351845664/the-experts-missing-from-the-ebola-response-anthropologists



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